Elutrope series

Overview of the Elutrope series

Solvent n-heptane
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
C7H16 100.21 1,388
boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
98.4 48 0.40 0.33
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
20.4 500 1.9 0
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.01 9.2 10.6 11.4

Solvent n-hexane
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
0.0 C6H14 86.18 1.375
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
68.9 160 0.31 0.26
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
18.4 50 1.9 0
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
12.5 13.9 14.6

Solvent Cyclohexane
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
0.0 C6H12 84.16 1,427
Side point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
80.7 104 0.94 0.71
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
25.5 300 2.0 0
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.04 5.4 6.3 6.7

Solvent Isooctane
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
0.4 C8H18 114.23 1,392
boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
99.2 51 0.51 0.50
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
500 1.9 0
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.01 7.9 8.3 8.7

Solvent 1,1,2-trichloro-trifluoroethane
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
Cl2FCCClF2 187.38 1,356
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
47.7 368 0.70
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
1000 2.4
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
5.2 5.8 5.9

Solvent Carbon tetrachloride
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
1.7 CCl 4 153.82 1,460
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
76.5 120 0.97 0.74
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
27.0 10 2.2 0
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.18 6.1 6.7 7.0

Solvent Toluene
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
2.3 C7H8 92.14 1,496
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
110.6 29 0.58 0.47
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
28.5 100 2.4 0.36
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.29 8.3 9.8 11.0

Solvent Chloroform
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
4.4 CHCl 3 119.38 1,446
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
61.7 210 0.56 0.47
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
27.1 10 4.8 1.01
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.40 9.0 10.5 11.6

Solvent 1,2-dichloroethane
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
3.7 C2H4Cl2, 98.97 1.445
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
83.4 87 0.80 0.65
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
24.2 3 10.6 1.75
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.44 7.6 8.4 8.9

Solvent Dichloromethane
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
3.4 CH2 Cl2 84.93 1,424
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
40.0 453 0.43 0.36
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
26.5 100 9.1 1.60
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.42 10.1 11.8 13.2

Solvent 1-butanol
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
3.9 C4H9OH 74.12 1,399
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
117.2 6.7 2.95 1.78
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
24.6 100 17.8 1.66
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100

Solvent Acetonitrile
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
6.2 CH3CN 41.05 1,344
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
81.6 97 0.39
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
29.3 40 37.5 3.44
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.65 12.6 14.0 15.4

Solvent 2-propanol
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
4.3 C3H8O 60.10 1,378
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
82.4 43 2.27 1.35
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
21.7 400 18.3 1.66
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.82 2.1 2.3 2.5

Solvent Ethyl acetate
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
4.3 CH3COOC2H5 88.10 1,372
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
77.1 97 0.44 0.36
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
23.9 400 6.0 1.78
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.58 9.2 10.9 12.1

Solvent Acetone
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
5.4 C3H6O 58.08 1,359
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
56.2 233 0.32 0.27
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
23.7 1000 20.7 2.70
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.56 12.7 14.7 16.2

Solvent Ethanol
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
5.2 C2H5OH 46.07 1,361
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
78.5 59 1.20 0.83
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
22.8 1000 24.3 1.70
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.88 3.4 3.9 4.2

Solvent 1,4-dioxan
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
4.8 C4H8O2 88.11 1.422
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
101.0 41 1.21 0.92
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
33.7 50 2.2 0.40
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.56 5.2 6.0 6.5

Solvent Tetrahydrofuran
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
4.2 C4H8O 72.11 1,405
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
66.0 200 0.47 0.38
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
200 7.4 1.63
ε 0 against Al23 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.57 10.9 11.9 12.6

Solvent Methanol
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
6,6 CH3OH 32.04 1,329
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
65.0 128 0.52 0.45
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
22.6 200 32.6 1.70
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
0.95 5.6 6.5 7.1

Solvent Water
Polarization index by Snyder (1) Formula Molar mass g / mol Refractive index n D20
9.0 H2O 18.01 1,333
Boiling point ° C Vapor Pressure mbar (20 ° C) Dynamic Viscosity mPa * s
22 ° C 40 ° C
100.0 23 0.95 0.65
Surface tension against air or steam
mN / m at 20 ° C.
TLV 1989
mg, ml / m 3, ppm
Dielectric constant at 20 ° C and 25 ° C. Dipole moment (Debye)
72.8 80.2 1.85
ε 0 against Al2O3 according to Snyder (1) Flow coefficient x [mm 2 / s] (2) – DC-finished plate silica gel 60; overflow height in mm
50 75 100
5.1 5.7 5.8

Sources:
[1] LR Snyder, Journal of Chromatography 92, 233 (1974)
A = the intervention clearly identified as a carcinogenic agent to no MAK can be specified
(2) additional flux tables by H. Haalpap in “Introduction to the HPDC, ed. RE Kaiser, IFC publishing Bad Durkheim 1976, pages 232-233;
HPTLC, ed A. Slatkiš, RE Kaiser, Elsevier and IFC 1977, p. 126-12

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