Chemical concentration ratios and their conversion
1 Molar concentration
The molar concentration of a substance B in a solution of the quotient of the number of moles of substance B and the volume of the solution Lg The corresponding SI unit is 1 mol / m³. Furthermore, mol/l, mol/dm ³, mmol/l, mol/ml, kmol/m³ permitted. A solution with the molar concentration of 1 mol/l is also referred to as a 1 molar (abbreviated 1 M).
c _{B} = n _{B} / v _{Lg}
2 Equivalent concentration
The equivalent concentration, also called norm, of a substance B in a solution is defined as the quotient of the Soffmenge the equivalent (the number of equivalents is given by the stoichiometric value z of a molecule) and the volume of the solution. Apply the same units as the molar concentration.
A solution of the equivalent concentration c _{Ä, B} of 1 mol / l is referred to as 1 Normal (short 1N).
c _{Ä, B} = n _{Ä, B} / v _{Lg} = c _{B} * z = (n _{B} * z) / v _{Lg}
3 Molality
The molality of a substance B in a solution is defined as the quotient of the number of moles of substance B and the mass of the solvent Lm The resulting valid SI unit is 1 mol/kg.
A solution of molality _{m c, B} = 1 mol / kg is also designated as 1 molal.
c _{m, B} = n _{B} / m _{Lm}
4 Mass concentration
The mass concentration of a substance B in a solution is defined as the ratio of the mass of the substance B and the volume of the solution.
The SI unit is 1 kg / m³. Furthermore, the following units are permitted: g / l, mg / ml, mg / l, g / cm ³, ug / ml. Are not permitted ratio units such as%, ‰, ppb and ppm and mg% and g% (= g/100 ml)
ρ _{B} = m _{B} / v _{Lg}
5 Volume concentration
The volume concentration of a substance B in a mixing stage is defined as the quotient of the volume of the substance B, and the total volume of the mixing phase.
The corresponding SI unit is m³ / m³. Furthermore permitted are l / l, l / m³, cm ³ / l and l / hl.
σ _{B} = v _{B} / v _{tot}
6 Amount of substance
The amount of substance (mole fraction called) of a substance B in a mixed phase is defined as the quotient of the molar amount of the substance B and the sum of the molar amounts of all components of the mixed phase.
The SI unit is mol / mol, and mmol / mol, mol / kmol,% ‰, ppm and ppb are permitted.
χ _{B} = n _{B} / n Σ _{i}
7 Mass fraction
The mass fraction (also called mass fraction) of a substance B in a mixed phase is defined as the ratio of the mass of the substance B and the sum of the masses of all the components of the mixed phase.
The associated SI unit is kg / kg, g / kg, mg / g, mg / kg, g / g% ‰, ppm and ppb are also permitted.
w _{B} = m _{B} / m Σ _{i}
8 Volume fraction
The volume fraction (also called the volume fraction) of a substance B in a mixing stage is defined as the quotient of the volume of the substance B and the sum of the volumes of all components of the mixed phase.
The SI unit is m³ / m³. Furthermore, are permitted: l / l, l / m³, cm ³ / l, ml / l,%, ‰, ppm and ppb.
φ _{B} = v _{B} / v Σ _{i}
Conversion of concentration variables
c_{B} | c_{m, B} | ρ_{B} | χ_{B} | w_{B} | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
c_{B} = | c_{B} | ( c_{m, B} * ρ) / (1+ c_{m, B} * M_{B}) | ρ_{B}/M_{B} | (x_{B} * ρ) / (Σ χ_{i} * M_{i}) | (w_{B} * ρ)/M_{B} |
c_{n, B} = | c_{B}/ (ρ - c_{B}*M_{B}) | c_{m, B} | ρ_{B}/ (M_{B}(ρ - ρ_{B})) | χ_{B}/ (χ_{Lm} * M_{Lm}) | w_{B}/ (w_{Lm} * M_{B}) |
ρ_{B} = | c_{B} * M_{B} | (c_{m, B} * M_{B} * ρ) / (1 + c_{m, B} * M_{B}) | ρ_{B} | (χ_{B} * M_{B} * ρ) / Σ χ_{i} * M_{i}) | w_{B} * ρ |
χ_{B} = | (c_{B} * M_{Lm}) / (ρ + c_{B}(M_{Lm} - M_{B})) | (c_{m, B} * M_{Lm}) / (1 + c_{m, B} * M_{Lm})) | (ρ_{B} * M_{Lm}) / (ρ_{B} * M_{Lm} + M_{B} * (ρ - ρ_{B})) | χ_{B} | w_{B} / ( M_{B} * Σ (w_{i} / M_{i})) |
w_{B} = | (c_{B} * M_{B}) / ρ | (c_{m, B} * M_{B}) / ( 1 + c_{m, B}* M_{B}) | ρ_{B} / ρ | (χ_{B} * M_{B}) / (Σ χ_{i} * M_{i}) | w_{B} |